executive coaching

360 Degree Feedback: Its Role in Employee Development

The case study addresses the following issues: the functions of the feedback within the organization, with a special emphasis placed on its use for employee career development; the benefits of such feedback to the organization and the individuals involved; the mechanisms used to obtain feedback; and, finally, the pitfalls of 360 degree feedback and its implementation.

Nowack presents a useful summary of some of the reasons for the increased use of 360 degree feedback in organizations: a need for a cost-effective alternative to assessment centres; the increasing availability of assessment software capable of summarizing data from multiple sources into customized feedback reports; the need for continuous measurement of improvement efforts; the need for job-related feedback for employees affected by career plateauing; and the need to maximize employee potential in the face of technological change, competitive challenges and increased workforce diversity.

360 degree feedback: the organizational and individual perspectives the use of 360 degree feedback can be examined from two perspectives - the organizational and the individual perspective.

London and Beatty, on the other hand, suggest using an introductory strategy which involves 360 degree feedback for development for several years before using it as an input to supervisory evaluations and decisions about pay and promotion.

The literature recommends that a trained professional handles the feedback and follow through process, but for many organizations this will depend on how many managers are involved and the size of the organization.

360 degree feedback will succeed in a developmental context only where the core values of the organization are also supportive of training and development, and the organization is committed to the training and development process as a means of enhancing its competitiveness.

Recent notions of the learning organization advocate the need for open feedback systems and the need for continuous improvement.

While it is accepted generally that feedback is invaluable within organizations,especially in managing employee behaviour, much research suggests that theflow of feedback in organizations is typically constrained[1]. Numeroussuggestions have been put forward to free up feedback channels – is one such mechanism. The focus of this article is on 360 degreefeedback which is defined as a contrived method of providing a flow offeedback to employees from all directions. The article addresses the followingissues: the functions of the feedback within the organization, with a specialemphasis placed on its use for employee career development; the benefits ofsuch feedback to the organization and the individuals involved; themechanisms used to obtain feedback; and, finally, the pitfalls of 360 degreefeedback and its implementation..Although the names are different, the process is essentially the same. Theredoes not appear to be a distinct individual who founded or invented this processand, according to Moses et al.[2], the term “360 degree feedback” is misleadingas it suggests a newly discovered concept, whereas they argue that perceptionsof people have been available as long as there have been people to observe them.Their argument suggests that 360 degree feedback is a case of “old wine in newbottles”; the process has always existed within organizations but lately hasdeveloped the new label of 360 degree feedback.Whether it is old wine or new wine, the bottle is certainly new and feedback’s use by organizations is on the increase. It is estimated that Americancompanies spent $152 million on this form of feedback for developmentpurposes in 1992[3]. According to Van Veslor et al.[4], the number of feedback instruments has increased significantly in the past 15 year. 

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Posted on:2016-02-17

Transformational Leadership and Self-Deprecating Humor

Based on this understanding of the differential nature of transformational and pseudo-transformational leadership, and how humility and narcissism contrast leaders' self- vs other-oriented motivation, we examine how leaders express their values and concern for others using humor.

We chose humor as a mechanism through which leaders express their concern for others because of the potential for humor to be both a weapon to harm others and a tool to build relationships.

Humor and leadership Humor in the workplace has been identified as beneficial for reducing stress, promoting a "Fun" culture, encouraging group cohesion, and encouraging communication.

Although those perspectives are seemingly contradictory, our conceptualization of the relationship between transformational leadership and humor allows for both of these perspectives to be correct: some forms of humor are destructive, such as those that demean others, whereas other forms of humor are constructive, such as those that preserve and even strengthen the leader-follower relationship.

The nature and effects of aggressive humor can be gleaned from the superiority theory of humor, which posits that aggressive humor reinforces and maintains existing norms and hierarchical structures so that the interpersonal distance between leaders and followers increases.

We found a main effect for type of humor on humorousness of speech, F(3, 150) 3.15, po0.05, Z2 0.06, such that those in the control group reported the speech to be significantly less funny than those in the self-deprecating condition, and no additional significant differences were found among the self-, in- group-deprecating, and aggressive humor conditions on humorousness of the speech.

As a sign of high relationship quality and closeness, distinctive humor practices between the leader and follower may result, and thereby echo previous research which has documented the emergence of distinctive humor practices in group contexts.

A sense of humor is part of the art of leadership, of getting along with people, of gettingthings done (Dwight D. Eisenhower).The power of humor has been well documented in a range of literatures, includingneurology (e.g. Bartoloet al., 2006; Coulson and Williams, 2005), communications (e.g.Gorham and Christophel, 1990; Wanzeret al., 2005), and applied psychology(e.g. Cooper, 2005; Ford and Ferguson, 2004). In organizational studies, there has beensome focus on leaders’ use of humor (e.g. Romero and Cruthirds, 2006) and itsconsequences on work satisfaction (e.g. Davis and Kleiner, 1989), collegiality (e.g.Bowlinget al., 2004), and psychological climate (e.g. Taylor and Bain, 2003). Extendingprevious research, we focus on whether the type of humor that leaders use is associatedwith perceptions of their leadership, in particular transformational leaders. Transformational leadership is comprised of four components: idealized influence,inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration(Bass, 1998). Idealized influence occurs when leaders treat followers fairly and earnfollowers’ trust and respect, thereby serving as a role model. As such, there are twoparts to idealized influence: an attributional component made on the part of thefollower, and a behavioral component enacted by the leader. Inspirational motivationencompasses expressing a compelling vision of the future for followers, andmotivating followers to surpass their expectations. Intellectual stimulation involvesencouraging followers to look at problems in new and different ways, to be creative,and to think independently. Last, individualized consideration entails leaders beingattentive and sensitive to followers’ individual needs and skills. Collectively, the goalof the four facets of transformational leadership is to elevate followers, and to this end,transformational  leadership  has  been  associated  with  higher  organizationalperformance (e.g. Dviret al., 2002), employee satisfaction (e.g. Nemanich and Keller,2007), organizational commitment (e.g. Barlinget al., 1996), and employee proactivity(e.g. Madzar, 2001)

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Posted on:2016-02-17

The Role of Executive Coaching in Performance Management

Seeking the advice of an executive coach is becoming increasingly more common incompanies across America. After all, professional athletes have coaches, so whyshouldn't professional executives? Too often, however, coaches are called in even though an executive's poorperformance is well beyond redemption. The intervention is thus set up for failure,right from the start. The likely result is that the company loses not only the executive,but also the time and resources invested in the coaching engagement.

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Posted on:2016-02-15

The Impact of Executive Coaching and 360 feedback on Leadership Effectiveness

Transformational leaders broaden and change the interests of their followers, and generate awareness and acceptance of the purposes and mission of the group.

Studies have found significant and positive relationships between transformational leadership and the amount of effort followers are willing to exert, satisfaction with the leader, ratings of job performance, and perceived effectiveness of leader.

Transformational leadership involves the uncovering of contradictions among values and between values and practice, and the realigning of values in followers.

A partial correlation analysis also revealed that the significant and positive correlation between LMX and friendliness became non-existent after controlling for transformational leadership.

A partial correlation analysis also revealed that the positive correlation between transformational leadership and reasoning became non-significant after controlling for LMX. Controlling for transformational leadership resulted in the relationship between LMX and higher authority becoming non-significant, and controlling for LMX resulted in the relationship between transformational leadership and higher authority becoming non-significant.

The followers of transformational leaders experience a total and unqualified belief in and identification with the leaders and their mission.

More studies are needed that look at both LMX and transformational leadership and not just one of them, since part of the effects attributed to transformational leadership could actually be on account of LMX.  The multiple changes occurring in society and the business world have created a greater need for transformational leadership.

In the last decade, executive coachingcombined with 360 feedback has been one ofthe fastest growing executive developmentoptions within global companies (Goldsmithet al., 2000; Judge and Cowell, 1997). It haseven become ``trendy'' to have one's ownexecutive coach ± similar to having apersonal trainer. Businesses invest largesums of money in matching executives withthe right coach, yet, to date, there has beenlittle empirical research on the impact ofcoaching on leadership effectiveness andpayback to the organization (Kilburg, 2000;Hall et al., 1999).

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Posted on:2016-02-15

The Executive Coaching Trend: Towards More Flexible Executive

Zeus and Skiffington suggest that executive coaching is a personalized form of assistance for learning, which involves building individuals' strengths and recognizing and overcoming weaknesses.

In this study, we conducted an exploratory study to investigate the influence of executive coaching on managers' flexibility and by doing so, addressed the call to build a solid theoretical and empirical basis for executive coaching research.

According to the International Coach Federation a coach's responsibility is to discover, clarify, and align with what the leader wants to achieve, encourage leader self-discovery, elicit leader-generated solutions and strategies, and hold the leader responsible and accountable.

All of the coaches participating in the process had backgrounds in human resources and psychology and received specific executive coaching training based on ICF core coaching competencies.

Systems were in place for leaders to seek a coach change or for the coach to seek a leader change if either were not satisfied how the process was progressing.

During the final three sessions of coaching, a leader's knowledge of the coaching process and their coach is more advanced and they have a plan with specific tasks, reducing the ambiguity of their responsibilities.

This should be an important consideration for future executive coaching programs and research on the structure and impact of executive coaching.

Authors have argued that there is a great risk of failure in executive positions, with a number of researchers stating that up to 50 per cent of people in executive positions fail at some time in their careers (Hoganet al., 1994; Kilburg, 2000). Kaplanet al.(1985,p. 31) suggest that a potential reason for failures in executive decision-making is that when employees become executives they believe they have crossed an invisible dividing line and have ascended to a “rarefied atmosphere” which makes it difficult for people to acknowledge that they require self-development. Executive coaching is a potential means to help executives engage in ongoing self-development, and the use of executive coaching in organizations has rapidly increased in the last five years. Despite the popularity of executive coaching, little empirical research has examined the effectiveness of this development tool (Kampa-Kokesch and Anderson, 2001).Researchers have focused on surveying the types of development practices that are adopted, the outcomes of coaching, and have focused on self-reports of the coaching process. As a result, many unresolved questions remain about the effectiveness, viability,  and  sustainability  of  executive  coaching  practices  for  management development (Kampa-Kokesch and Anderson, 2001). In this study, we conduct an exploratory study to determine whether executive coaching positively influences managerial flexibility. Below, we discuss executive coaching in some detail. Executive coaching Executives often experience unique difficulties in their employment situation including isolation and autonomy (Kaplanet al., 1985; Sztucinski, 2001). Research suggests that executives report a lack of desire to change because they attribute their existing behaviours as contributing to their current success (Ramsden and Zacharrias, 1993; Sztucinski, 2001). Coaching has been promoted as an important training and development tool for executives as it addresses several of the unique issues experienced by individuals in these positions. First, coaching is done almost entirely in real business time and focuses on specific, real-life contextual issues (Bougae, 2005).This means that the common problem of transferring training to the work environment is minimized and the application of training is maximized. In addition, the coaching process is personalized, as opposed to a “one-size fits all” approach used in many other approaches to executive development. Also of note is that executive coaching does not involve the executive being removed from the workplace for a substantial period of time. Zeus and Skiffington (2000, p. 64) suggest that executive coaching is a personalized form of assistance for learning, which involves building individuals’ strengths and recognizing and overcoming weaknesses. Enniset al.(2003) argued that executive coaching is based on trust and respect between an executive and their coach.

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The Role of Coachee Characteristics in Executive Coaching for Effective Sustainability

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Posted on:2014-03-18