leadership qualities

Effectiveness at the Top - What Makes the Difference and Why Study Guide

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Posted on:2016-02-17

Transformational Leadership and Self-deprecating

A sense of humor is part of the art of leadership, of getting along with people, of gettingthings done (Dwight D. Eisenhower).The power of humor has been well documented in a range of literatures, includingneurology (e.g. Bartoloet al., 2006; Coulson and Williams, 2005), communications (e.g.Gorham and Christophel, 1990; Wanzeret al., 2005), and applied psychology(e.g. Cooper, 2005; Ford and Ferguson, 2004). In organizational studies, there has beensome focus on leaders’ use of humor (e.g. Romero and Cruthirds, 2006) and itsconsequences on work satisfaction (e.g. Davis and Kleiner, 1989), collegiality (e.g.Bowlinget al., 2004), and psychological climate (e.g. Taylor and Bain, 2003). Extendingprevious research, we focus on whether the type of humor that leaders use is associatedwith perceptions of their leadership, in particular transformational leaders. Transformational leadership is comprised of four components: idealized influence,inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration(Bass, 1998). Idealized influence occurs when leaders treat followers fairly and earnfollowers’ trust and respect, thereby serving as a role model. As such, there are twoparts to idealized influence: an attributional component made on the part of thefollower, and a behavioral component enacted by the leader. Inspirational motivationencompasses expressing a compelling vision of the future for followers, andmotivating followers to surpass their expectations. Intellectual stimulation involvesencouraging followers to look at problems in new and different ways, to be creative,and to think independently. Last, individualized consideration entails leaders beingattentive and sensitive to followers’ individual needs and skills. Collectively, the goalof the four facets of transformational leadership is to elevate followers, and to this end,transformational  leadership  has  been  associated  with  higher  organizationalperformance (e.g. Dviret al., 2002), employee satisfaction (e.g. Nemanich and Keller,2007), organizational commitment (e.g. Barlinget al., 1996), and employee proactivity(e.g. Madzar, 2001)

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Posted on:2016-02-17

A Principal Components Analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory

As other psychological constructs come and go, the concept of narcissism has had a long, and in many ways, formidable history. Narcissism was first introduced into psychological literature in 1898, when Havelock Ellis used the term Narcissus-like to refer to "a tendency for the sexual emotions to be lost and almost entirely absorbed in self-admiration " (Ellis, 1898).Shortly after this reference appeared, Nacke (1899) wrote a German summary of the Ellis paper in which he used the term Narcismus to refer to a sexual perversion whereby a person treats his or her own body as a sexual object. Although Nacke was an obscure figure in German psychiatry at the time, his reference to narcissism caught Freud's attention. Apparently the concept of narcissism made a deep impression on Freud, for by 1914 narcissism had become a focal construct in his meta psychological and clinical thinking, so much so that con-temporary historians of the psychoanalytic movement generally agree that Freud's explorations into narcissism were central to the development of his (a) structural model (id, ego, and super-ego); (b) concept of the ego ideal and subsequently the superego;(c) shift from an id psychology to an ego psychology; and (d)object relations theory (e.g., Fine, 1986; Moore, 1975; Sandier, Holder, & Dare, 1976; Tiecholz, 1978).  As with many of Freud's more important concepts, his thinking pertaining to narcissism tended to follow two separate yet interdependent lines of development. Narcissistic Personality Inventory

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Posted on:2011-06-13