As other psychological constructs come and go, the concept of narcissism has had a long, and in many ways, formidable history. Narcissism was first introduced into psychological literature in 1898, when Havelock Ellis used the term Narcissus-like to refer to "a tendency for the sexual emotions to be lost and almost entirely absorbed in self-admiration " (Ellis, 1898).Shortly after this reference appeared, Nacke (1899) wrote a German summary of the Ellis paper in which he used the term Narcismus to refer to a sexual perversion whereby a person treats his or her own body as a sexual object. Although Nacke was an obscure figure in German psychiatry at the time, his reference to narcissism caught Freud's attention. Apparently the concept of narcissism made a deep impression on Freud, for by 1914 narcissism had become a focal construct in his meta psychological and clinical thinking, so much so that con-temporary historians of the psychoanalytic movement generally agree that Freud's explorations into narcissism were central to the development of his (a) structural model (id, ego, and super-ego); (b) concept of the ego ideal and subsequently the superego;(c) shift from an id psychology to an ego psychology; and (d)object relations theory (e.g., Fine, 1986; Moore, 1975; Sandier, Holder, & Dare, 1976; Tiecholz, 1978). As with many of Freud's more important concepts, his thinking pertaining to narcissism tended to follow two separate yet interdependent lines of development. Narcissistic Personality Inventory
This content is not for further sharing or distribution. Please check copyright information.