Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership and Innovation in an R&D Organization Experiencing Major Change – Study Guide

This study comes out of Australia, studying 104 participants in a large Australian R&Dorganization.  The researcher/authors were interested in the determining the linkagebetween transformational leadership styles and innovation.  In particular, they werewondering if this would impact innovation during times of change. You may skip form page 600 beginning with the section titled “Procedure” to page604 to the heading “Discussion”.  Please pick back up from here through thelimitations.

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Posted on:2016-02-17

A Theoretical Model of Transformational Leadership’s Role in Diverse Teams

The results of research on diverse team composition suggest that it offers both a great opportunity for organizations as well as an enormous challenge.  Numerous studies have suggested that more diverse teams have the potential to consider a greater range  of  perspectives  and  to  generate  more  innovative  and  higher-quality  solutions than  less  diverse  teams  (Austin,  1997).  In contrast, meta-analyses have revealed a negative relationship, inconsistent or no relationship between team heterogeneity and innovation (van Knippenberget al., 2004; Webber and Donahue, 2001).Within the management literature, there have been a series of suggestions regarding these conflicting results.  Some  research  has  focused  on  exploring  the  mechanisms through  which  diversity  exerts  its  influence  in  workgroups.  This  has  included investigation  into  mediator  variables,  for  example,  member  commitment,  decision comprehensiveness and conflict (Jehnetal., 1999; Riordan and Shore, 1997), as well as the development  of  theories  that  aim  to  unravel  the  salient  compositional  patterns  and cognitive   processes   underpinning   diversity   affects.   In   contrast   to   the   simple measurement   of   bio-demographic   or   job-related   attributes,   some   researchers have proposed diversity affects based on the schism between subgroups, for example, the “fault lines” concept provides an analytical framework in which attribute alignment forms distinct subgroups (Lau and Murnighan, 1998, 2005), while the “factional” concepts suggests that subgroups will emerge on the basis of identification with social entities represented by members (Li and Hambrick, 2005). Other authors have cited moderator variables  for  example,  that  the  relationship  between  diversity  and  performance  is moderated by the time that a team has been working together, task characteristics such as routineness and interdependence, debate and team collective identification (Harrisonetal., 2002; Jehnetal., 1999; Pelledetal., 1999; van der Vegt and Bunderson, 2005). In this paper,  we  develop  a  model  that  focuses  on  the  moderating  role  of  leadership  in explaining the influence of diverse composition on team knowledge creation. Transformational Leadership

 

Research in this area suggests that knowledge-based advantages for functionally-diverse groups are based on cognitive effects stemming from the connection of previously unconnected knowledge, and lead to the proposition that cognitive heterogeneity, defined as the extent to which the team reflects differences in knowledge, including beliefs, preferences and perspectives, mediates the relationship between profession al diversity and team effectiveness.

The following discussion provides justification for the role of cognitive heterogeneity as a mediator of the relationship between functional diversity and knowledge creation, and for the moderating role of transformational leadership.

Cognitive structures are the internal representations of ourselves, others and our environments, which are based on previous knowledge, experience and learning and are used to explain how individuals create their own realities as they make sense of and interact with their world.

Research in upper echelons studies , health administration , diversity , communities-of-practice and innovation and corporate entrepreneurship , provides empirical support, based on the interaction of individuals across functional boundaries, for associated differences in perspective and tacit knowledge from within one functional area compared with another.

If diversity operates as a proxy for underlying cognition, the next step is to investigate the relationship between cognitive heterogeneity and knowledge creation and the possibility of a mediated relationship between diversity and knowledge creation through cognitive heterogeneity.

The following discussion provides justification for the role of affective conflict as a mediator of the relationship between functional diversity and knowledge creation, and for the moderating role of transformational leadership.

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Posted on:2016-02-17

Transformational Leadership: A Quasi-Experimental Study

Transformational leadership is one of the most widely used leadership theories in theorganizational psychology literature. Despite the considerable volume of researchexamining transformational leadership only a small amount of this research hasemployed field-based experimental designs to examine transformational leadershipinterventions (e.g. Barling et al., 1996; Dvir et al., 2002; Hardy et al., 2010; Kellowayet al., 2000). This has led to many authors calling for researchers to utilize experimentaldesigns more in their transformational leadership research (e.g. Bass and Avolio, 1993;Jung and Avolio, 2000; Lim and Ployhart, 2004; Rafferty and Griffin, 2004). Indeed, in arecent meta-analysis Dumdum et al. (2002) stated that “Any researcher going throughthe coding exercise cannot help but be struck by the fact that there are still too fewexperimental studies [y]” (p. 62). Using field-based experimental designs when testingtransformational leadership theory is important because experimental designs havethe potential to test for causality in real-world situations, can determine whethertransformational leadership is teachable, and can also quantify potential benefits toorganizations. 

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Posted on:2016-02-15

Transformational Leadership: An Examination of Cross-National Differences and Similarities

Are most leadership behaviours universal?Or, are there exceptions across country andcorporate cultures? This study aims toanswer these important questions. Our aimis to highlight any generalizability concernsthat may arise due to American-centricresearchers and their leadership theories. Bytaking a global perspective, researchers andmanagers can be more confident with theirunderstanding of what leadership means andhow leadership works in various nationalsettings.

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Posted on:2016-02-15

Transformational Leadership Development Connecting Psychological and Behavioral Change

Although researchers have begun identifying contextual factors and leadercharacteristics that explain variation in leaders’ reactions to leadership interventions(Avolio and Hannah, 2008; Eid et al., 2008; Hazucha et al., 1993; Hotho and Dowling,2010; Smither et al., 2005), this research does not provide insight into the processesthrough which change is actually achieved. Our study addresses this gap by exploringwhether leaders who show improvement in their leadership behavior exhibit differentpsychological reactions compared to leaders whose leadership behavior does notimprove in response to training. This research has the potential to shed light on thepsychological mechanisms through which the effectiveness of training interventionsmay be enhanced, and may reveal previously unrecognized psychological impactsassociated with leader development.

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Transformational Leadership as Related to Team Outcomes and Contextual Moderation

Avolio, 1994). These leadership styles have been found to relate differentially to avariety of groups and individual outcomes. and there has been no controversyregarding the predictive nature of the theory (Antonakis et al., 2003).The theory claimsthat the three leadership styles are hierarchically structured, so that the optimal leaderis the one who exhibits mostly the transformational style, and to a lesser extent thetransactional and avoiding styles (Avolio, 1999). It has also been claimed that thesestyles and their effects are universal.

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Transformational Leadership and Learning Orientation

Interest in the concept of learning organizations has been intense in the last few years (Starkey, 1996). The role that individual learning plays in organizational learning is at once obvious and subtle: obvious because all organizations are composed of individuals; subtle because organizations can learn independently of any specific individual, but not independently of all individuals (Kanter, 1983;Kim, 1993). Furthermore, the importance of a motivation or desire to learn has long been recognized in the context of human resource development (e.g. Donaldson and Scannell, 1986; Nadler and Nadler, 1989), and the literature of general management implies that this motivation may be influenced by the behavior of leaders in organizations (Argyris, 1993; Kofman and Senge, 1993; Senge, 1990). Individual motivation for valued outcomes may lead directly to the allocation of personal resources of time and effort to various possible activities (Naylor et al., 1980). From this perspective, an individual’s motivation to learn may be observed by the amount of time and/or effort devoted to learning. Two factors that may affect work motivation in general and motivation to learn in particular are leader behavior (Bass and Avolio, 1994) and goals (Locke et al., 1981), for both of these factors can direct the efforts of individuals towards particular outcomes and hence influence the amount of effort expended on their achievement. Moreover, it seems likely that leadership behavior and goals will be interrelated because the climate established by leadership behavior provides individuals with focus and feedback regarding organizational goals. 

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Posted on:2016-02-15

Transformational Leadership and Emotional Intelligence: An Exploratory Study

Within the large literature on leadership,transformational leadership has probablyattracted more empirical scrutiny than anyother current theory (Bass, 1985, 1998),focusing either on its nature or effects. Thetheory suggests that transformationalleadership can be distinguished fromtransactional leadership. Transformationalleadership comprises idealized influence,inspirational motivation, intellectualstimulation, and individualizedconsideration. In contrast, transactionalleadership consists of contingent reward(also referred to as constructivetransactions), management-by-exception,and laissez faire management.Perhaps the reason that research ontransformational leadership has becomesomewhat self-sustaining is that positiveresults continue to emerge on the effects oftransformational leadership. We now know,for example, that transformationalleadership enhances subordinates'satisfaction (Hater and Bass, 1988) and trust(Barlinget al.,2000; Pillaiet al., 1999;Podsakoffetal., 1996) in leadership, as well asemployees' affective commitment (Barlingetal., 1996). In addition, transformational isassociated with business unit performance(Barlinget al., 1996; Geyer and Steyrer, 1998;Howell and Avolio, 1993).Given the usefulness of transformationalleadership, attention has turned to otherissues such as how it develops (Avolio andGibbons, 1988; Zacharatoset al.,in press),and associated factors such as moraldevelopment that may predisposeindividuals to use transformationalleadership (Turner and Barling, 2000). In thepresent study, we focus on another factorthat might predispose leaders to usetransformational behaviors, namelyemotional intelligence (EQ).

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Posted on:2016-02-15

Personal Epistemological Beliefs and Transformational Leadership Behaviours

A  large  body  of  work  now  exists  showing  the  positive  effects  of  transformational leadership, not only on subordinate behavior, but also on organizational outcomes. Recently,   research   attention   has   shifted   to   investigating   factors   underlying transformational   leadership   behaviors   and   to   ways   that   transformational leadership   behaviors   can   be   identified   and   developed   (Barlinget   al.,   2000;Kelloway  and  Barling,  2000;  Sivanathan  and  Fekken,  2002;  Sacharatoset al.,  2000).One  emerging  area  of  interest  is  the  study  of  the  value  and  belief  systems  oftransformational leaders (Krishnan, 2001), with research indicating that an individual’s behaviour is “stimulated” by their core beliefs (Russell, 2000, p. 76). Such core beliefs may affect a leader’s metacognitive and cognitive processes, and in turn influence the leader’s thoughts and behaviors (Lord and Emrich, 2001). It is therefore argued that by understanding core beliefs characteristic of transformational leaders, such leaders can be identified and developed through training (Krishnan, 2001).It   is   our   contention   that   the   study   of   epistemological   beliefs,   that   is,   an individual’s  core  beliefs  about  knowing  and  learning,  may  provide  further  insights into  the  decision-making  processes  and  behaviors  of  transformational  leaders.  We believe  that  in  the  same  way  epistemological  beliefs  have  been  shown  to  filter  all other  beliefs  and  therefore  influence  the  professional  practice  of  educators  working in   various   learning   environments,   these   beliefs   may   influence   the   cognitive processes  of  those  in  leadership  roles,  thus  influencing  the  leader’s  professional practices.  Further,  we  contend  that  leaders  displaying  transformational  behaviors will   not   only   hold   different   epistemological   beliefs   to   those   who   display   less transformational  leadership  behaviors,  but  also  that  the  epistemological  beliefs will    be    relatively    sophisticated.    Finally,    we    believe    that    studying    the epistemological beliefs of transformational leaders may provide insight into the effectiveness of coaching and training strategies described in the literature. Epistemological   beliefs   can   be   developed   through   both   formal   and   informal learning  activities  and  it  is  possible  that  through  the  process  of  coaching  and training  in  leadership  settings,  the  epistemological  beliefs  of  these  individuals  are actually  maturing.

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Linking Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Transformational Leadership Styles

A project manager’s primary responsibility, as a leader, is to achieve project objectives.This can be accomplished by focusing on both the rational and emotional aspects ofa project and using an integrated approach. The objective of this study is to demonstratelinkages between the project manager’s emotional intelligence abilities andtransformational leadership styles under a systems thinking and project managementapproach.

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