Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership and Innovation in an R&D Organization Experiencing Major Change – Study Guide

This study comes out of Australia, studying 104 participants in a large Australian R&Dorganization.  The researcher/authors were interested in the determining the linkagebetween transformational leadership styles and innovation.  In particular, they werewondering if this would impact innovation during times of change. You may skip form page 600 beginning with the section titled “Procedure” to page604 to the heading “Discussion”.  Please pick back up from here through thelimitations.

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Posted on:2016-02-17

A Theoretical Model of Transformational Leadership’s Role in Diverse Teams

The results of research on diverse team composition suggest that it offers both a great opportunity for organizations as well as an enormous challenge.  Numerous studies have suggested that more diverse teams have the potential to consider a greater range  of  perspectives  and  to  generate  more  innovative  and  higher-quality  solutions than  less  diverse  teams  (Austin,  1997).  In contrast, meta-analyses have revealed a negative relationship, inconsistent or no relationship between team heterogeneity and innovation (van Knippenberget al., 2004; Webber and Donahue, 2001).Within the management literature, there have been a series of suggestions regarding these conflicting results.  Some  research  has  focused  on  exploring  the  mechanisms through  which  diversity  exerts  its  influence  in  workgroups.  This  has  included investigation  into  mediator  variables,  for  example,  member  commitment,  decision comprehensiveness and conflict (Jehnetal., 1999; Riordan and Shore, 1997), as well as the development  of  theories  that  aim  to  unravel  the  salient  compositional  patterns  and cognitive   processes   underpinning   diversity   affects.   In   contrast   to   the   simple measurement   of   bio-demographic   or   job-related   attributes,   some   researchers have proposed diversity affects based on the schism between subgroups, for example, the “fault lines” concept provides an analytical framework in which attribute alignment forms distinct subgroups (Lau and Murnighan, 1998, 2005), while the “factional” concepts suggests that subgroups will emerge on the basis of identification with social entities represented by members (Li and Hambrick, 2005). Other authors have cited moderator variables  for  example,  that  the  relationship  between  diversity  and  performance  is moderated by the time that a team has been working together, task characteristics such as routineness and interdependence, debate and team collective identification (Harrisonetal., 2002; Jehnetal., 1999; Pelledetal., 1999; van der Vegt and Bunderson, 2005). In this paper,  we  develop  a  model  that  focuses  on  the  moderating  role  of  leadership  in explaining the influence of diverse composition on team knowledge creation. Transformational Leadership


Research in this area suggests that knowledge-based advantages for functionally-diverse groups are based on cognitive effects stemming from the connection of previously unconnected knowledge, and lead to the proposition that cognitive heterogeneity, defined as the extent to which the team reflects differences in knowledge, including beliefs, preferences and perspectives, mediates the relationship between profession al diversity and team effectiveness.

The following discussion provides justification for the role of cognitive heterogeneity as a mediator of the relationship between functional diversity and knowledge creation, and for the moderating role of transformational leadership.

Cognitive structures are the internal representations of ourselves, others and our environments, which are based on previous knowledge, experience and learning and are used to explain how individuals create their own realities as they make sense of and interact with their world.

Research in upper echelons studies , health administration , diversity , communities-of-practice and innovation and corporate entrepreneurship , provides empirical support, based on the interaction of individuals across functional boundaries, for associated differences in perspective and tacit knowledge from within one functional area compared with another.

If diversity operates as a proxy for underlying cognition, the next step is to investigate the relationship between cognitive heterogeneity and knowledge creation and the possibility of a mediated relationship between diversity and knowledge creation through cognitive heterogeneity.

The following discussion provides justification for the role of affective conflict as a mediator of the relationship between functional diversity and knowledge creation, and for the moderating role of transformational leadership.

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Posted on:2016-02-17

Transformational Leadership: A Quasi-Experimental Study

Group processes might also be impacted by transformational leaders encouraging followers to adopt collective goals and by articulating belief in followers, demonstrating concern for them, and encouraging teamwork.

This is normal turnover for the organization, and the control and experimental groups had similar turnover rates.

The design of the study was such that the vast majority of participants provided data only for the leadership and group cohesion, or for the training outcome measure.

Comparing pre- and post-test pass rates in this way helped to control for fluctuations in organizational factors as such factors should affect both the control and the experimental group in the same way.

The results suggested that the interactions for inspirational motivation, appropriate role model, fostering acceptance of group goals, intellectual stimulation, and contingent reward were due to the control group significantly decreasing from pre-test to post-test, while the experimental group did not significantly change from pre-test to post-test; and the interaction for individual consideration was due to the experimental group significantly increasing from pre-test to post-test, while the control group did not significantly change form pre-test to post-test.

A w2-test of independence indicated that these changes in returnee pass rates were significantly different for the experimental and control groups 18.09, po0.01). The results are displayed Table III and Figure 3.

In the current study organizational changes may have been different for the control and experimental groups and it maybe these changes that could be an alternative explanation of the results.

Transformational leadership is one of the most widely used leadership theories in theorganizational psychology literature. Despite the considerable volume of researchexamining transformational leadership only a small amount of this research hasemployed field-based experimental designs to examine transformational leadershipinterventions (e.g. Barling et al., 1996; Dvir et al., 2002; Hardy et al., 2010; Kellowayet al., 2000). This has led to many authors calling for researchers to utilize experimentaldesigns more in their transformational leadership research (e.g. Bass and Avolio, 1993;Jung and Avolio, 2000; Lim and Ployhart, 2004; Rafferty and Griffin, 2004). Indeed, in arecent meta-analysis Dumdum et al. (2002) stated that “Any researcher going throughthe coding exercise cannot help but be struck by the fact that there are still too fewexperimental studies [y]” (p. 62). Using field-based experimental designs when testingtransformational leadership theory is important because experimental designs havethe potential to test for causality in real-world situations, can determine whethertransformational leadership is teachable, and can also quantify potential benefits toorganizations. 

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Posted on:2016-02-15

Transformational Leadership: An Examination of Cross-National Differences and Similarities

Are most leadership behaviours universal?Or, are there exceptions across country andcorporate cultures? This study aims toanswer these important questions. Our aimis to highlight any generalizability concernsthat may arise due to American-centricresearchers and their leadership theories. Bytaking a global perspective, researchers andmanagers can be more confident with theirunderstanding of what leadership means andhow leadership works in various nationalsettings.

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Posted on:2016-02-15

Transformational Leadership Development Connecting Psychological and Behavioral Change

In the leadership literature, prior leadership experiences have been found to predict leader efficacy and both leader self-efficacy and transformational leadership behavior have been found to improve through executive coaching.

The response rate for the pre-training survey was 100 percent for both leaders and their supervisors, and the response rate for the post-training survey was 100 percent for leaders and 90 percent for their supervisors.

Before aggregating the team member and peer ratings of leader behavior, we tested for within-group agreement and between-group variance.

The mean rwg( J) values for team members', Mpre-training 0.98 and Mpost-training 0.94 and peers' ratings Mpre-training 0.97 (SDpre-training 0.07) and Mpost-training 0.98 (SDpost-training 0.09) of transformational leadership behavior Demonstrated high within-group agreement.

Thus, the observed relationship between change in positive affect and change in transformational leadership will reflect the effect of the leader's behavior and environment on his or her positive affect as well as the effect of the leader's affect on his or her behavior and environment.

The training intervention investigated in this study employed what are currently popular elements of leadership development interventions, such as 360-degree feedback, training workshops and executive coaching, but the way in which these elements are presented and delivered, and the environment in which they are delivered, may affect their behavioral and psychological impact.

Theoretical implications and directions for further research Our study supports the proposition, derived from social cognitive theory, that there is a relationship between change in transformational leadership behavior and change in leaders' psychological attributes.

Although researchers have begun identifying contextual factors and leadercharacteristics that explain variation in leaders’ reactions to leadership interventions(Avolio and Hannah, 2008; Eid et al., 2008; Hazucha et al., 1993; Hotho and Dowling,2010; Smither et al., 2005), this research does not provide insight into the processesthrough which change is actually achieved. Our study addresses this gap by exploringwhether leaders who show improvement in their leadership behavior exhibit differentpsychological reactions compared to leaders whose leadership behavior does notimprove in response to training. This research has the potential to shed light on thepsychological mechanisms through which the effectiveness of training interventionsmay be enhanced, and may reveal previously unrecognized psychological impactsassociated with leader development.

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Posted on:2016-02-15

Transformational Leadership as Related to Team Outcomes and Contextual Moderation

Their model identified initially nine factors which describe leadership styles, but later Bass and Avolio questioned the empirical usefulness of such numerous factors, and suggested combining them into three - the transformational, the transactional and the avoiding, or passive, style.

Recently, leadership literature has emphasized that the theoretical neglect of group level characteristics in exploring the relationships between leadership and its effects on the group and on the individual may obscure some important aspects of the dynamics and universality of such impacts.

We cannot predict with much assurance the direction of such differences: It seems reasonable that the combat-experienced cadets, such as in the infantry and OS tracks, are more critical of their training-leaders, and therefore consider them lower on the valued transformational behavior than would those in the Basic, non-combat-experienced cadets, Yet for lack of past studies on this issue, we adopted the prudent way of a not predicting the direction of differences, and therefore we formulated the following hypothesis: H1. Team perceptions of leadership style will differ by track, but we cannot predict the direction of these differences.

Schein suggests that leadership and culture are mutually related, and Popper and Lipshitz proposed that the function of leaders concerning organizational learning is threefold: To put learning at the center of the organizational agenda, to establish structural bases for learning, and to generate cultural and psychological conditions of trust.

The study was conducted in an all male officers' training school of the Israeli Defense Forces and the population consisted of five battalions in three training tracks: basic officers training, operations and support officers training, and infantry officers training.

Training track is the discrete contextual variable which is used as the moderator, and consists of the basic track, the OS track, and the infantry track.

We obtained sizeable correlations for the Basic track, and quite small, insignificant correlations for the other two tracks.

Avolio, 1994). These leadership styles have been found to relate differentially to avariety of groups and individual outcomes. and there has been no controversyregarding the predictive nature of the theory (Antonakis et al., 2003).The theory claimsthat the three leadership styles are hierarchically structured, so that the optimal leaderis the one who exhibits mostly the transformational style, and to a lesser extent thetransactional and avoiding styles (Avolio, 1999). It has also been claimed that thesestyles and their effects are universal.

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Transformational Leadership and Learning Orientation

Interest in the concept of learning organizations has been intense in the last few years (Starkey, 1996). The role that individual learning plays in organizational learning is at once obvious and subtle: obvious because all organizations are composed of individuals; subtle because organizations can learn independently of any specific individual, but not independently of all individuals (Kanter, 1983;Kim, 1993). Furthermore, the importance of a motivation or desire to learn has long been recognized in the context of human resource development (e.g. Donaldson and Scannell, 1986; Nadler and Nadler, 1989), and the literature of general management implies that this motivation may be influenced by the behavior of leaders in organizations (Argyris, 1993; Kofman and Senge, 1993; Senge, 1990). Individual motivation for valued outcomes may lead directly to the allocation of personal resources of time and effort to various possible activities (Naylor et al., 1980). From this perspective, an individual’s motivation to learn may be observed by the amount of time and/or effort devoted to learning. Two factors that may affect work motivation in general and motivation to learn in particular are leader behavior (Bass and Avolio, 1994) and goals (Locke et al., 1981), for both of these factors can direct the efforts of individuals towards particular outcomes and hence influence the amount of effort expended on their achievement. Moreover, it seems likely that leadership behavior and goals will be interrelated because the climate established by leadership behavior provides individuals with focus and feedback regarding organizational goals. 

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Posted on:2016-02-15

Transformational Leadership and Emotional Intelligence: An Exploratory Study

Within the large literature on leadership,transformational leadership has probablyattracted more empirical scrutiny than anyother current theory (Bass, 1985, 1998),focusing either on its nature or effects. Thetheory suggests that transformationalleadership can be distinguished fromtransactional leadership. Transformationalleadership comprises idealized influence,inspirational motivation, intellectualstimulation, and individualizedconsideration. In contrast, transactionalleadership consists of contingent reward(also referred to as constructivetransactions), management-by-exception,and laissez faire management.Perhaps the reason that research ontransformational leadership has becomesomewhat self-sustaining is that positiveresults continue to emerge on the effects oftransformational leadership. We now know,for example, that transformationalleadership enhances subordinates'satisfaction (Hater and Bass, 1988) and trust(Barlinget al.,2000; Pillaiet al., 1999;Podsakoffetal., 1996) in leadership, as well asemployees' affective commitment (Barlingetal., 1996). In addition, transformational isassociated with business unit performance(Barlinget al., 1996; Geyer and Steyrer, 1998;Howell and Avolio, 1993).Given the usefulness of transformationalleadership, attention has turned to otherissues such as how it develops (Avolio andGibbons, 1988; Zacharatoset al.,in press),and associated factors such as moraldevelopment that may predisposeindividuals to use transformationalleadership (Turner and Barling, 2000). In thepresent study, we focus on another factorthat might predispose leaders to usetransformational behaviors, namelyemotional intelligence (EQ).

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Posted on:2016-02-15

Personal Epistemological Beliefs and Transformational Leadership Behaviours

A distinct body of research related to personal epistemological beliefs may provide insights into how beliefs, metacognition and cognition and training relate to transformational Personal epistemology In the area of educational research, the study of epistemological beliefs has emerged as a new field of inquiry with the potential to provide a core set of beliefs that can be used to investigate teaching behaviours and practices.

Personal epistemological beliefs Epistemological beliefs are defined as beliefs about knowing and learning that reflect views on what knowledge is, how it is gained, and the limits and criteria for determining knowledge.

Metacognition and cognition Research into the influence of epistemological beliefs on thinking and learning suggests that an individual's beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning are linked to comprehension, metacomprehension and metacognitive capacity, interpretation and persistence in working on difficult academic tasks.

Strategies demonstrated to be important for changing beliefs were included in the curriculum, and included: creating opportunities for reflection, challenging existing beliefs and supporting the accommodation of new beliefs.

Baxter Magolda proposed the promotion of epistemological beliefs through the use of "Relational pedagogy", a formal framework through which individuals are encouraged to analyze their personal beliefs and experiences and identify evidence and theory that supports and validates such beliefs.

Personal epistemology and transformational leadership: implications for practice. The study of personal epistemology has potential to provide a core set of beliefs and metacognitions that could be used to investigate leadership beliefs and metacognitive processes.

Methodologies and tools for identifying transformational leaders and for measuring epistemological beliefs already exist in the literature.

A  large  body  of  work  now  exists  showing  the  positive  effects  of  transformational leadership, not only on subordinate behavior, but also on organizational outcomes. Recently,   research   attention   has   shifted   to   investigating   factors   underlying transformational   leadership   behaviors   and   to   ways   that   transformational leadership   behaviors   can   be   identified   and   developed   (Barlinget   al.,   2000;Kelloway  and  Barling,  2000;  Sivanathan  and  Fekken,  2002;  Sacharatoset al.,  2000).One  emerging  area  of  interest  is  the  study  of  the  value  and  belief  systems  oftransformational leaders (Krishnan, 2001), with research indicating that an individual’s behaviour is “stimulated” by their core beliefs (Russell, 2000, p. 76). Such core beliefs may affect a leader’s metacognitive and cognitive processes, and in turn influence the leader’s thoughts and behaviors (Lord and Emrich, 2001). It is therefore argued that by understanding core beliefs characteristic of transformational leaders, such leaders can be identified and developed through training (Krishnan, 2001).It   is   our   contention   that   the   study   of   epistemological   beliefs,   that   is,   an individual’s  core  beliefs  about  knowing  and  learning,  may  provide  further  insights into  the  decision-making  processes  and  behaviors  of  transformational  leaders.  We believe  that  in  the  same  way  epistemological  beliefs  have  been  shown  to  filter  all other  beliefs  and  therefore  influence  the  professional  practice  of  educators  working in   various   learning   environments,   these   beliefs   may   influence   the   cognitive processes  of  those  in  leadership  roles,  thus  influencing  the  leader’s  professional practices.  Further,  we  contend  that  leaders  displaying  transformational  behaviors will   not   only   hold   different   epistemological   beliefs   to   those   who   display   less transformational  leadership  behaviors,  but  also  that  the  epistemological  beliefs will    be    relatively    sophisticated.    Finally,    we    believe    that    studying    the epistemological beliefs of transformational leaders may provide insight into the effectiveness of coaching and training strategies described in the literature. Epistemological   beliefs   can   be   developed   through   both   formal   and   informal learning  activities  and  it  is  possible  that  through  the  process  of  coaching  and training  in  leadership  settings,  the  epistemological  beliefs  of  these  individuals  are actually  maturing.

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Linking Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Transformational Leadership Styles

The project managers of today must be sensitive and responsive to project stakeholders and must also be able to manage themselves.

The project manager must be intuitive in making judgments and decisions, including the capability for both conceptual analysis and integration.

A project manager must understand what drives people, and must be able to enlist their self-interests in the pursuit of the project's goals and objectives.

The questions that you ask, the manner in which you ask them and the relationships that are developed between the project manager and stakeholders should be supported by systems thinking and the project management approaches.

By identifying linkages between emotional intelligence abilities and transformational leadership styles, this study provides organizations and their project managers with professional and career development opportunities Results of study the study showed that there are a number of linkages between emotional intelligence abilities and transformational leadership style.

Where leaders were once seen to control, plan and inspect the overall running of a project, in today's more service-oriented industries, leadership roles are also to motivate and inspire others, to foster positive attitudes at work, and to create a sense of contribution and importance with and among team members and stakeholders.

Project managers often describe project activities in terms of reinforcing and balancing processes, limits, delays and patterns of behavior.

A project manager’s primary responsibility, as a leader, is to achieve project objectives.This can be accomplished by focusing on both the rational and emotional aspects ofa project and using an integrated approach. The objective of this study is to demonstratelinkages between the project manager’s emotional intelligence abilities andtransformational leadership styles under a systems thinking and project managementapproach.

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Posted on:2016-02-15